Digitisation + Digitalisation = Digital Transformation

Oleh Jeffrey Bahar | Group Deputy CEO Spire Research and Consulting

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Selama September lalu, saya terbang ke tiga kota: Balikpapan, Batam, dan Surabaya. Di tiga kota itu, kebetulan saya didaulat oleh PT Telekomunikasi Selular, anak perusahaan PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk., untuk berbagi pengetahuan tentang transformasi digital.

Kepada ratusan peserta yang hadir setiap sesinya, saya sampaikan bahwa transformasi bisnis merupakan upaya penggunaan platform teknologi digital untuk mengubah proses bisnis serta memberikan peluang pendapatan dan penghasil nilai baru. Gampangnya, mendigitalisasi proses bisnis yang ada.

Mengapa harus bertransformasi ke ranah digital? Pertimbangannya jelas, teknologi digital mampu mempersingkat pekerjaan dan menghemat anggaran. Intinya, menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien. Yang mesti dipertimbangkan dalam mendigitalisasi perusahaan ada tiga, yakni Manusia, Bisnis, dan Output.

Copenhagen Airport mampu meningkatkan pengalaman penumpang seraya melakukan efisiensi operasional berkat penggunaan platform data analitik. 

Pertama, ketika manusia dan bisnis terhubung secara digital, maka akan melahirkan pengalaman pelanggan (customer experience) yang lebih baik. Produktivitas pun meningkat.

Kedua, ketika bisnis menghasilkan output, perusahaan akan menemukan peluang baru untuk mengubah proses dan mendapatkan visibilitas ke hasil bisnis.

Ketiga, ketika ada orang dan output maka akan menghasilkan wawasan yang dapat ditindaklanjuti serta mata rantai yang berkelanjutan.

Sebagai contoh, Nationwide Building Society, firma keuangan yang berbasis di Swindon, Inggris Raya, menerapkan sistem layanan dokumen tanpa kertas.

Itu berarti Nationwide mengoperasikan layanannya secara digital. Hasilnya, tanpa perlu menambah jumlah tenaga di cabang-cabang, firma tersebut malah mampu meningkatkan hipotek (kredit yang diberikan atas dasar jaminan benda tidak bergerak) baru sebesar 2/3 dari sebelumnya, dengan kepuasan pelanggan yang naik dua digit dan memangkas biaya penjualan 2/3.

Transformasi digital itu mampu meningkatkan daya tampung calon penumpang pesawat hingga 28% tanpa harus mengembangkan infrastruktur baru.

Copenhagen Airport yang terletak di Kastrup, Copenhagen, Denmark, mampu meningkatkan pengalaman penumpang angkutan udara seraya menekan efisiensi operasional berkat penggunaan platform data analitik canggih.

Jika satu dekade lalu untuk melakukan transformasi bisnis ke arah digital perusahaan terkendala biaya yang masih cenderung mahal, rasanya kini tidak lagi. Teknologi-teknologi pendukung harganya kian murah.

Pada 2007, untuk membeli satu unit drone perusahaan mesti mengalokasikan anggaran sekitar Rp10 jutaan, sekarang dengan Rp4 jutaan sudah dapat.

Untuk mengoperasikan sistem robotik, pemanufaktur harus berinvestasi sebesar Rp5-5,5 miliar per unit, sedangkan sekarang sudah bisa diperoleh dengan harga Rp200 juta.

Proses transformasi bisnis ke arah digital diperlukan untuk mendongkrak kinerja bisnis perusahaan semaksimal mungkin. 

Perangkat-perangkat dengan harga yang semakin masuk akal itu pun dibekali kemampuan teknologi yang kian mutakhir.

Perangkat-perangkat itu mayoritas sudah mendukung platform Internet of Things–yang kini disebut-sebut sebagai basis terciptanya Revolusi Industri 4.0.

Jadi, proses transformasi bisnis ke arah digital diperlukan untuk mendongkrak kinerja bisnis perusahaan semaksimal mungkin dengan memangkas pengeluaran yang biasanya dikucurkan.

Sehingga pendapatan perusahaan naik tinggi tapi dalam waktu bersamaan pengeluarannya justru turun drastis. Kalau tidak, kompetitor akan menyalip bisnis Anda.●

 

Spire Research and Consulting merupakan perusahaan periset pasar dan konsultasi bisnis untuk pasar global, terutama di negara-negara berkembang. Perusahaan yang didirikan pada 2000 ini memiliki kantor perwakilan di semua negara Asia Tenggara, ditambah China, Amerika Serikat, Korea Selatan, dan Jepang, dengan kantor pusat di Singapura.

5 Tips on Dealing with the Recent Market Volatility

By Aadil Zaman and Syed Nishat

Senior Vice President of Wall Street Alliance Group

 

The recent stock market fluctuation made the headlines partly because we haven’t had a meaningful pullback in quite some time. Here are Aadil Zaman and Syed Nishat of Wall Street Alliance Group’s top 5 tips that they have used to help clients successfully navigate through market volatility:

Syed Nishat and Aadil Zaman

 1.    Be mentally prepared for market declines. Market corrections are an essential part of a healthy market. At any point in time an investor should be prepared for a 10% to 20% pullback. If the recent 2 days fall made some investors feel restless and stressed, then it may be time to reassess their risk exposure to make it more conservative. On the other hand, corrections present an opportunity for those investors who are sitting on a large amount of cash to identify entry points in the market to put their money to work.

2.    Factor in rising interest rates. Recent data has shown that the economy is improving with unemployment falling and GDP growth increasing which will eventually lead to inflation pressures. One of the responsibilities of the Federal Reserve is to control inflation and this is accomplished by raising interest rates. As the market adjusts to the realization of higher interest rates it may fluctuate. It is therefore essential while designing an investment strategy to take higher future interest rates into consideration.

3.    Watch the municipal bond market. Volatility could cause a short-term fall in the municipal bond market which may create an opportunity for investors who are in a higher tax bracket. Consider that a yield to maturity of 3.5% per year on a high grade insured municipal bond which is trading at par is equivalent to making a 5.83% per year after tax return for someone who is in the 40% tax bracket and that too with very low risk.

4.    Stay away from leveraged ETFs. Leveraged ETFs are bad news for the individual investor. These are complexed products that are often misunderstood and could cause market volatility as well as distortions.

5.    Identify your worst-case scenario. This is an important exercise for investors, so they can understand their pain threshold. At present, the likelihood of a market decline to the extent of what happened in 2008 are low, however, one should always ask, “What if 2008 happens again?” Understanding this worst-case scenario will help investors stay calmer and have an investment approach that is closely aligned with their individual level of risk tolerance.

With greater participation in the stock market through machine trading, ETFs and robo advisors, volatility is here to stay. For this reason, it is important for investors to take into account a high degree of market fluctuation in their portfolio design.●

The opinions and forecasts expressed may not actually come to pass. This information is subject to change at any time, based on the market, the political environment, and other conditions and should not be construed as a recommendation of any specific security or investment plan. Past performance does not guarantee future results.

Securities offered through Securities America, Inc., member FINRA/SIPC. Advisory services offered through Securities America Advisors, Inc. Wall Street Alliance Group and Securities America are separate companies.

 

The Top 10 Customer Experience Trends in 2018

By Lauren Kindzierski

Vice President of Solutions and Capabilities Hinduja Global Solutions  

 

The customer service industry will experience the biggest digital shift yet in 2018 as customer experience (CX) brand leaders seek to expand channels, leverage analytics, adopt automation, and integrate the front office with back office operations. CX pioneers should prepare for a surge in the adoption of disrupter technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), digital self-service, and bot tools as well as the need to hire data scientists to improve business intelligence and better enable consumers to get the right answer fast. These digital capabilities will help some businesses, with the right unified engagement strategy and delivery expertise, to unlock a treasure trove of transformational potential for optimizing customer experience — balancing the cost of service with frictionless engagement. In this report, we will cover those digital innovation and customer engagement operational trends that will assist CX leaders in planning their transformation projects in 2018-19.

1. Digital channels finally overtake voice.
We will finally witness the tipping point where digital channels — email, chat, social, text, messaging — overtake voice in the contact center. Mobile driven interaction management —in-app messaging, chat, SMS, and social — have become foundational components of an omnichannel strategy. According to Dimension Data’s global contact center benchmarking report, digital interactions accounted for over 42% of all interactions taking place inside the contact center in the beginning of 2017. At that current rate, digital was expected to overtake voice in 2018. It’s already happening with some of our clients. One consumer packaged goods client being serviced out of the UK receives 71% of all customer interactions from digital channels, and only 29% from voice. Included in these statistics are messaging via What’s App, which currently accounts for approximately 10% of the client’s volume. Instant communication will become the standard for exceptional customer service in 2018. Messaging is the new channel of choice, according to Twilio research, which states 89% of consumers want to use messaging to communicate with a business. There are multiple benefits to messaging such as the ability to send photos or videos between agents and customers, faster and more timely communications, and the ability to stop, start, and continue with the conversation at the customer’s convenience.

2. Investments in advanced analytics tools drive customer experience transformation.
Advanced data analytics tools can help businesses uncover business-critical insights and gain a competitive edge. According to Gartner, “By 2018 50% of agent interactions will be influenced by real-time analytics.” As customer experience analytics matures, it is becoming increasingly predictive and focused on personalization. A sophisticated data analytics tool can make predictions, or generate recommendations based on information gathered, thus giving contact center agents and bots more background and context on each individual customer they are servicing. In addition, analytics plays a significant role in increasing productivity. As one case in point, speech analytics can detect non-value adds, such as long conversational pauses or points in the conversation when the customer has to repeat responses.

3. Smartphone video camera support changes the game for customer support.
Gone are the days of customers struggling to explain technical product issues to an agent by phone. With smartphone video camera support, 3-4 minutes of triage can be accomplished in seconds. By texting customers a simple link, brands can now activate the video camera on a customer’s mobile device to see what they are looking at. It’s that simple. Smartphone video camera support, in combination with messaging or voice support, can accelerate time-to-resolution while boosting customer satisfaction.

If customers are uncomfortable leveraging video, the alternative option is to send a simple picture via SMS so that companies are able to get a better view and understanding of a product issue and communicate more effectively with customers — for example, annotating photos to indicate product issues. Real outcomes are cost-containment, better average handle time (AHT), lower product return rates, and improved CSAT.

4. Emojis make digital conversations measurably more emotional and expressive.
As digital conversations overtake voice in 2018 and tone of voice becomes absent from interactions, the customer care industry will need to find new ways to gauge and measure emotion and sentiment. The answer lies in technology. The emoji became accepted and praised as part of the customer care communication mainstream in 2017 and this will expand in 2018 — as a means to add lightheartedness or a personal touch and show humor and happiness. Another way to measure and gauge emotion is by embedding text analytics in digital channels, such as text or chat. Analytical dashboards can run behind the scenes as agents engage with customers to detect the level of sentiment in conversations. If the analysis detects a high negative sentiment score, the conversation can be flagged for a supervisor to review. Lastly, the same text analytics approach should be applied when using bots. Today, talking to a bot can be more and more akin to connecting with a human. However, there should always be an option for a customer to escalate to a human agent when necessary.

5. Artificial intelligence (AI) revolutionizes the customer service industry.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing industries across the globe, including customer service. Thanks to the rise of digital channels and the advancement of AI and machine learning technology, we now have the ability to predict (with a high level of confidence) the right answer to a customer’s inquiry in any digital channel — email, SMS, chat, or social. This advancement in technology will make our agents much more efficient. No more looking up answers, spell checking, tagging or categorizing conversations. The only action agents will have to take is to hit “approve” or “personalize” on the predicted responses. These new customer care solutions will bring together the empathy of agents with the efficiency of bots, for AI-assisted conversations that present the facts of a product or brand while adding the personalization of a human touch. AI technology will even be able to automatically tag and categorize posts, saving agents more time.

6. The customer care industry seeks outside expertise to build and optimize chatbot experiences.
As the hottest topic in 2017, customer service professionals had some high expectations chatbots were going to be a game changer. But apparently, chatbots still have a lot to learn. Early in 2017, Facebook announced it was “refocusing” its use of AI after its bots hit a failure rate of 70%, meaning bots could only get to 30% of requests without some sort of human intervention. There are a few reasons most chatbots fail. One, organizations fail to clearly define the bots’ purpose. Two, most organizations launch well before they are ready and fail to do the necessary amount of testing. Lastly, organizations did not have the in-house expertise to optimize and train a machine learning, natural language processing AI model. Chatbots are only as good as the data that feeds them. If chatbots start to learn something inaccurately or are fed false data to start, they will produce false results and humans will need to reset and intervene.

7. Smart Bots&Brains™ strategy is at the heart of CX transformation.
In 2018, the winning customer service formula will be a strategic “bots-brains” approach, leaning on intelligent automation to create optimized CX, intelligently integrating people at key moments of truth.

Whether front-end bot or bot-assisted agent, tomorrow’s businesses will employ automation where it adds value through reduced customer effort (improving CSAT by guiding customers to the right answer fast), cost-containment, or revenue generation. Bot deployment frees up human labor for higher-minded, more emotional, and complex decision making. According to a recent report by Horses for Sources, automation is making way for strong growth of high- and medium-skilled personnel—with highly skilled positions in the service provider industry increasing by 56%, and medium-skilled by 8%. However, low-skilled, routine jobs drop 30% as many of these roles get phased out over the next five years.

8. More customer care professionals budget for and hire data scientists/analysts and invest in text and speech analytics.
Delivering voice of the customer data is undoubtedly both art and science. Customer service teams live in a world of “unstructured” data including phone calls, chat transcripts, social transcripts, text transcripts, etc. Teams need analytics tools and data scientists to help make sense of the data and ultimately learn what customers are saying, requesting, complaining about, praising, and questioning. With the rise in digital conversations, hiring the right data professionals is going to become critical in 2018 if they want to execute their digital strategies flawlessly and remain competitive.

9. Robotic process automation (RPA), transforms both the back office and front office.
In the next two years, RPA will be recognized for its front-office potential as well. Automation will provide agents assistance to enhance productivity, by allowing team members to focus on helping customers and less time on navigating systems or post-contact wrap up. Additionally, automation at the desktop, will also improve quality by decreasing errors of manual data entry, reducing rework, and decreasing complaints. Reducing manual tasks allows for a better focus on listening to the customer, empathizing, and providing a frictionless experience. In 2018, we’ll see better collaboration between the front- and back office, for ROI that covers the advantages of both RPA types.

10. Work-at-home solutions grow and provide millennials the flexible jobs they seek.
Over the past decade, telecommuting has increased by 115%—that’s almost 3% of the U.S. workforce, as reported by Global Workforce Analytics and FlexJobs. With hiring, staffing, and attrition being some of the biggest obstacles in the customer care industry, this is one trend that will continue to grow in the next couple of years. There are many advantages to having a remote, at-home workforce. For one, many work-at-home-teams will have much lower attrition and absenteeism rates. Two, it expands the talent pool significantly making it much easier to hire for seasonal work. Three, the need to overstaff for the “just-in-case” is greatly reduced, thus saving cost.●

 

About HGS
A global leader in business process management (BPM) and optimizing the customer experience lifecycle, HGS is helping make its clients more competitive every day. HGS combines technology-powered services in automation, analytics and digital with domain expertise focusing on back office processing, contact centers and HRO solutions to deliver transformational impact to clients. Part of the multi-billion dollar conglomerate Hinduja Group, HGS takes a true “globally local” approach, with over 45,900 employees across 69 delivery centers in seven countries making a difference to more than 600 of the world’s top brands across nine key verticals. For the year ended 31st March 2017, HGS had revenues of Rs. 3,711 crore (US$ 555 million).

 

How to Boost PR Campaigns With Social Data

By Jason Edelboim

President of Cision Americas

 

As social media becomes woven into the workflow of communications professionals, it can feel daunting to understand what content will resonate with your influencers and the target audiences that engage with them.  

Cision Communications Cloud®’s “Matterhorn” release arms communicators with the tools they need to deepen their understanding of what influencers say about their brand on social channels and how that shapes the behavior and sentiment of their target audience.   

1. Know What Influencers Say About Your Brand, And Gauge Their Impact on Your Target Audience  

The idea that brands can monitor social content and conversations has been around for a decade now. And while companies have often focused on customer support or general engagement with consumers as the primary use case for the social channel, the PR professionals have been under-served in terms of knowing which journalists and influencers on social channels matter the most to their campaigns. 

The Cision Comms Cloud™ is filling that gap by enabling communications teams to understand which key influencers engage on topics important to their brand and whether those influencers generate the desired interactions with their target audience. For example, for a retailer that wants to understand how people responded to coverage on a new store opening, users can quickly pull a holistic view of the photos, videos and comments related to that event generated by influencers. The platform now measures and analyzes content from Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube. Because it’s all integrated into the Comms Cloud™, PR pros can monitor social alongside their monitoring of traditional print, broadcast and online news coverage. 

 

2. Leverage Social Data to Craft More Effective Campaigns And Better Engage Your Target Audience

It’s one thing to gather social insight; it’s what you do with it that counts. While real-time social monitoring allows you to quickly respond to influencers and customers, the real opportunity for communicators is to proactively shape messaging around their future campaigns. 

With the help of Cision Comms Cloud™, communicators can identify which content is most impactful across social channels based on the level of audience engagement. For example, let’s say that the same retailer mentioned above, announces an exciting new campaign they are running in conjunction with the Miami Dolphins. The team runs a press release, contacts online news media outlets and launches a social campaign directly from the platform. As their story gets picked up and retweeted, their communications team can identify important social posts and engagement statistics linked to the announcement. Furthermore, they can create categories within the Comms Cloud™ to understand key trends in those social conversations to then promote the products or topics that sparked the most engagement with their target audience. Using Cision’s URL tracking, the retailer might notice that content posted directly from the Miami Dolphin’s Twitter handle performed better than coverage from popular sports networks. With that data, they know to continue investing in coverage from key sponsors.

 3. Understand How Your Social Campaigns Drive Value

Unlike other earned media channels, public relations teams cannot rank social posts by UVPM or publicity value, but instead, they rely on ranking by statistics such as social following. Other technology vendors often flaunt their ability to capture social amplification data, but in many cases, these are simply vanity metrics. While important, consider the number of likes, comments and shares to be the bare minimum when it comes to understanding your brand’s impact on social networks.  

Cision’s “Matterhorn” launch has empowered PR pros to take action on social data, streamlining the process of identifying the most impactful social posts linked to their brand, offering, or competition. Communicators are now able to sort social audience and engagement data to quickly determine which authors and posts are gaining the most traction from top to bottom. The previously mentioned retail company can also evaluate how various influencers compare to each other on social regarding a specific campaign. This will help to inform their brand’s influencer strategy moving forward, ensuring they focus on those that have the largest impact on their target audience. 

Communications teams will also be able to easily access charts and easy-to-share dashboards to visualize social data in the way that matters most to their brand and internal audiences. With the ability to filter this data by any number of custom categories, PR pros are finally able to find the meaning behind the numbers. Our retailer, after announcing their partnership with the Miami Dolphins, could go beyond overall mentions, and leverage engagement and follower data to identify which elements of the campaign drove the most interest.

Cision Comms Cloud™ helps PR and comms professionals evaluate whether their news is reaching the right audience, is engaging on social channels and most-importantly, impacting business results.  

Empat Langkah Pemasaran Digital yang Efektif 2018

Oleh Ari Nugrahanto

Founder dan CEO Kelola Digital Inc.

 

Selalu menjadi pertanyaan setiap pelaku bisnis yang sudah menjalankan berbagai macam strategi pemasaran digital. Apa sih yang menjadi senjata paling ampuh untuk meningkatkan penjualan pada era teknologi ini?

Pada 2017, masih menjadi keseruan jika para pemasar memanfaatkan website dan media sosial untuk melakukan kampanye pemasaran. Cara yang sangat efektif dan efisien itu pasti diharapkan untuk menarik konsumen. Dengan kekuatan para selebgram untuk memberikan ‘influence’ para pengikutnya, produk dan jasa yang ditawarkan makin berkibar.

Semua pemilik bisnis pasti setuju kalau semakin personal pendekatan pemasaran akan terjadi retensi. Kembalinya para pembeli dan berubah menjadi pelanggan. Kata kunci pendekatan pribadi itu akan menjadi topik yang akan saya angkat untuk lebih menguatkan judul artikel ini.

 

  1. Website bisnis menjadi website pelanggan

Website Anda yang selama ini hanya berisi tentang perusahaan dan produk Anda, segera ubah isinya menjadi semua tentang pembeli dan pelanggan Anda. Berikan apresiasi mengenai siapa saja yang baru melakukan pembelian dan berikan ruang untuk mereka, juga ruang untuk bercerita mengenai layanan, produk, atau jasa Anda.

Terima kasih yang sebesar-besarnya kepada para pelanggan Anda yang terus setia membeli dan datang kembali membawa pembeli lainnya. Harga murah dan kesempurnaan layanan dalam perspektif Anda sudah tidak akan laku pada tahun ini.

Kepuasaan para pelanggan menjadi isi papan iklan digital Anda di media sosial. Viralkan dan terus promosikan cerita ini dengan target kata kunci ‘kepuasan pelanggan’, bukan harga paling murah, diskon, atau promo.

 

  1. Media sosial sebagai layanan pelanggan 24/7

Kalau dulu media sosial hanya untuk media promosi dan penjualan online Anda, sekarang dedikasikan untuk layanan pelanggan online. Pembeli bisa melakukan pemesanan langsung melalui media sosial tanpa harus diarahkan ke toko online Anda.

Perjelas semua detail produk dan layanan Anda sehingga pemesanan hanya menuliskan kode sederhana tanpa harus menyebutkan warna,bentuk, jumlah, atau deskripsi panjang lainnya. Maksimal pembeli hanya melakukan dua langkah dan selebihnya Anda yang harus responsif. Jaga personalisasi Anda terhadap pelanggan dengan memberikan selalu penghargaan yang setinggi-tinggi. Sebut nama identitas media sosial mereka atau lebih baik ketahui nama asli sehingga menambah kedekatan Anda dengan pelanggan.

 

  1. Jangan anggap remeh group messenger

Buat segera group messenger untuk semua pelanggan Anda. Jelaskan dahulu tentang keuntungan berada di group ini. Salah satunya adalah apabila ada sebuah produk atau layanan terbaru, hanya nama yang terdapat di dalam grup ini yang bisa melakukan pembelian perdana. Syarat dan ketentuan tentang tata krama grup juga dijelaskan di depan seperti dilarang menyebarkan komplain, berita bohong, SARA, dan lain sebagainya.

Buat grup berdasarkan interest setiap pelanggan Anda, misalnya sesama penyuka fotografi, bisnis, manajemen dan lain-lain. Isi grup harus sesuai dengan kebutuhan anggota bukan selalu tentang bisnis Anda. Sesekali saja Anda bisa memberikan informasi mengenai produk dan layanan.

 

  1. Gunakan software pengelolaan pelanggan digital

Cari dan seleksi program point of sales (POS) Anda yang mencakup pengelolaan data pelanggan Anda. POS yang mendukung program kesetiaan pelanggan (loyalty program) akan sangat dibutuhkan untuk mendukung kampanye pemasaran Anda. Jangan ragu untuk selalu berkonsultasi mengenai hal ini terhadap para ahli di dunia pemasaran digital.

Konsistensi personalisasi digital akan memegang peranan sangat utama untuk menjalankan empat hal tadi. Buat tim khusus atau hanya satu orang di bisnis Anda yang melakukan pendataan awal personalisasi pelanggan. Buka semua database Anda, hubungi mereka dan mulai ketahui mereka lebih jauh, misalnya apa hobi mereka.

 

10 Ecommerce Trends That Will Shape Southeast Asian Ecommerce in 2018

by Sheji Ho

Chief Marketing Officer of aCommerce Group 

 

Alibaba’s entry into Southeast Asia served as social proof for many entrepreneurs and businesses that they were onto something big, which led to a year of exuberance for ecommerce in the region. “We’re just at the beginning, [the Alibaba-Lazada deal] will kickstart the whole cycle. It will attract more global investments into the region, and attract more entrepreneurs who now see this region as a great place to start a business.” — Stefan Jung, founding partner at Indonesia-based Venturra Capital in an interview with Tech in Asia

Even as we get closer to 2018, there are already numerous casualties in one of the most promising ecommerce growth markets in the world. Alibaba doubled down on its Lazada investment by upping its share from 51 percent to 83 percent and in a push to monopolize the market, put grips on Tokopedia, arguably one of Lazada’s biggest competitors in Indonesia.

Tencent, through JD or directly, also began executing its China playbook by investing in companies like Sea, Go-Jek, Traveloka, Pomelo Fashion and Tiki.vn. Global attention from the US came from KKR, who through Emerald Media, put $65M into ecommerce ‘arms dealer’ aCommerce in a bid to replicate Baozun’s dominance in the Chinese “TP” (Tmall Partner) landscape.

And the plays won’t stop here. Leveraging newly consolidated positions of strength, marketplaces will cross traditional boundaries and move into areas like private label brands and offline distribution. Brands will also feel increasingly cornered, facing a “damned if you do, damned if you don’t” situation.

Those that survive 2018 will have to find a niche for themselves, such as in fashion or home, because there isn’t much room left for another horizontal ecommerce player. Others will be tempted to take risky shortcuts like say, raising money through ICOs. 2018 will also see Tencent, not Alibaba or a local company, emerge as the winner in mobile payments in Southeast Asia. It might be a good time to start learning Chinese.

Plata o Plomo: Southeast Asia ecommerce will be increasingly factionalized into Alibaba and Tencent camps, and locals will pick sides

Given its similarities to China roughly 10 years ago, Southeast Asia has become a gold rush for Chinese Internet giants looking to expand beyond the mainland. It was Alibaba’s acquisition of Lazada last year that triggered an arms race between China’s #1 and #2 in Southeast Asia, and in turn, will cause local companies to choose sides.

Alibaba also led a $1.1B investment in Tokopedia in 2017, continuing to place its biggest bets on ecommerce. Moving forward, the company is expected to position Lazada and Tokopedia as the Tmall and Taobao of Southeast Asia, respectively.

Meanwhile, Tencent has aggressively tried to replicate a three-prong formula that was successful in its fight against Alibaba in China: gaming, mobile and payments. The first step was becoming the largest shareholder of Sea (previously Garena), predominantly a gaming powerhouse that runs Shopee, a mobile-first ecommerce marketplace and the second was placing bets on Go-Jek to become a “super app” like WeChat and WeChat Pay.

Understandable as WeChat Pay now commands an impressive 40% market share in China vs. AliPay’s 54%, up from 11% in 2015.

 

Alibaba Faction Tencent Faction

(Tencent is the largest shareholder in JD)

Lazada US$1B for 51% (Apr 2016)

US$1B for 83% (Jun 2017)

Tokopedia US$1.1B Series F (Aug 2017)
SEA (Shopee) 39.7%
JD (Thailand) US$250M in a US$500M JV with Central Group
Go-Jek US$100-150M (Aug 2017)

US$100M (Aug 2017) via JD

Traveloka US$0-150M (Jul 2017) via JD
Pomelo Fashion US$19M (Oct 2017, Lead) via JD
Tiki.vn US$44M (Nov 2017) via JD

 

“Is there a land grab right now for these kind of assets? I think in the land grab they [Tencent] are following us. They are seeing that we have positioned ourselves very well, and they’re sort of playing a catch up game. So what we want to do is, since we already have our positions, is to work with local entrepreneurs.” — Joe Tsai, Alibaba Vice Chairman, in speaking with Bloomberg.

Tencent and Alibaba share price increase over last 7 years compared to Amazon and NASDAQ composite

Source: Yahoo Finance (December 4, 2017)

 

With both Tencent and Alibaba market caps at all-time highs, we expect this trend to continue throughout 2018 with both sides gobbling up more local companies across the ecommerce ecosystem and upping shares in existing ones.

Facing slow organic growth, Amazon will acquire a company to fast-track its ecommerce expansion in the emerging region

Amazon’s entry into “Southeast Asia” was the biggest surprise and non-surprise at the same time. A non-surprise because Amazon’s long-awaited and rumored soft-launch into Singapore was widely covered by the media even before the company’s Prime Now services officially became available on July 26, 2017. A surprise because Amazon’s expected tour-de-force across the region ended before it even started.

Amazon fanboys celebrated the initial launch of a scaled down, poor man’s version of Amazon — Amazon Prime Now — offering a measly one million household items and daily essentials.

“I was expecting more things that I can’t get in Singapore, for example Sriracha or something small that’s not available in Singapore but most stuff on Prime Now are basic things you can get from Fairprice…” — Reddit User Ticklishcat

But there’s good reason for it. It doesn’t make sense for Amazon to set up a full-blown local presence in the country-state. Singaporeans, under the Free AmazonGlobal Saver Shipping option, were already enjoying free international shipping from Amazon en masse for orders over US$125. The country ranks #29 in terms of session/year to Amazon.com on a global scale but #4 when normalized for population size. With an average of 14.04 sessions per person per year visiting Amazon.com, Singapore takes the top spot among all the countries in Asia.

Singaporeans already buying from Amazon, without the latter’s full-fledged local presence: Singapore ranking only #29 in traffic to Amazon.com but #4 when normalized for population size (#1 in Asia)

 

Source: SimilarWeb, World Bank

 

 

The launch of Amazon Prime in Singapore earlier this month makes it even less likely for the firm to set up local operations beyond Amazon Prime Now. Amazon is no longer subsidizing the original free shipping for orders above US$125 to Singapore and Singaporean Prime members have free international delivery only on orders above S$60 on Amazon’s US website for S$8.99 per month in addition to other benefits.

Not much else has been heard about the company’s further expansion into the region, particularly Indonesia and Thailand, where markets are being rapidly carved up by Alibaba and Tencent.

With time running out for a full-fledged, organic entry into the high-growth markets of Southeast Asia, its stock trading at all-time highs, and not too distant memories of failure in China, we expect Amazon to attempt at least one major acquisition in 2018 to accelerate regional expansion.

Offline is the new online: pure-play ecommerce to launch physical stores to offset rising online customer acquisition costs and improve last-mile fulfillment

While traditional offline retailers like Central in Thailand and Matahari in Indonesia scrambled to move business online, online pure-play ecommerce is expected to make moves offline.

With online customer acquisition channels like Google and Facebook rapidly reaching saturation and diminishing returns, ecommerce players like Pomelo and Lazada will look to offline channels to reach new customers.

Pomelo dabbled in offline over the last few years but, fresh off a $19M Series B, recently launched its biggest pop-up to date in Siam Square, the fashion center of Bangkok. The store applies “click-and-collect”, enabling customers to order online and try items in store before deciding which ones to keep or return.

Source: Pomelo

 

“In fashion, the number one barrier to purchase is still the need to try product on for fit coupled with the hassle of returns. An offline footprint addresses this barrier head on. Additionally customers can be acquired offline and data from online can be used to drive higher sales and greater operational efficiencies offline. In short, a mix of offline and online is the optimal strategy for fashion retail going forward.” — David Jou, Co-Founder and CEO, Pomelo Fashion

Love Bonito, another online-first fashion brand from Singapore, officially launched its permanent flagship store at Orchard Road after seven years of being an ecommerce pure-play.

Lazada, on the other hand, may follow Alibaba’s moves in China where the ecommerce juggernaut launched Hema supermarkets in Beijing and Shanghai. In addition to reinforcing a positive brand experience and customer acquisition, these new offline stores serve as fulfillment centers, effectively making up for Southeast Asia’s lack of logistics infrastructure.

Lazada Group CEO Max Bittner already hinted at the possibility physical stores in Indonesia at a conference earlier this year.

Over the last decade in China, Alibaba rode 50%+ year-on-year ecommerce growth to become what it is today, however, as maturation slows, Alibaba has doubled-down on initiatives like Single’s Day (11.11), “New Retail” (smart pop-up stores around China), and market expansion to accelerate sales (Southeast Asia).

Despite the region being projected as the next big ecommerce growth story, online accounts for only 1-2% of total retail today. If companies like Lazada and Shopee want to grow faster than the market allows, going offline will be the obvious choice.

New ecommerce startups will use ICOs to raise funding to battle giants

With Southeast Asia increasingly being carved up by giants such as Alibaba and Tencent in a presumed winner-takes-all-market, smaller ecommerce startups will look at alternative ways to finance themselves. Enter newly hyped Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs).

Raising funds through these means in Southeast Asia was pioneered by Omise, a fintech startup based in Thailand, that successfully raised $25M in a few hours to develop a decentralized payment system.

Given early speculation of Amazon moving into the cryptocurrency space, we’ll have fertile ground for our first Southeast Asian ecommerce ICO. Already a start up called HAMSTER is selling HMT tokens to develop a decentralized marketplace that promises “no fees, no brokers”.

Revolutionary ecommerce platform funded by ICOs or ponzi scheme?

Expect ecommerce startups to use ICOs to fund customer acquisition, new product development, and inventory financing. That is, until the bubble bursts

A final wave of ecommerce consolidation sweeps through as local players adjust to a New World Order

 

We’ve shared numerous stories of casualties and consolidation during the Southeast Asian ecommerce bloodbath in our previous annual predictions.

Japan’s Rakuten sold off most of its assets in the region when it retreated in 2015/2016. Rocket Internet dumped Zalora Thailand and Vietnam in a fire sale in 2016 and sold its Phillipines entity to local conglomerate Ayala Group the year after. In Thailand, Ascend Group put its assets WeLoveShopping and WeMall on life support to focus on fintech.

In Indonesia, reports surfaced of SK Planet selling its Elevenia shares to Indonesian conglomerate Salim Group, which was quickly followed by news of its Malaysian entity up for bid between Alibaba and JD.

Earlier in the year, Indonesia’s second largest telco Indosat Ooredoo shut down its ecommerce website Cipika. Alfamart, Indonesia’s second largest convenience store chain also had to downsize operations to pivot its ecommerce initiative Alfacart away from a general marketplace play towards an online grocery channel.

Come 2018, all eyes will be on the health of remaining bastions of home-grown, horizontal ecommerce plays. As Alibaba and Tencent up the ante, there will definitely be more casualties in the new year.

Go-Pay will venture outside of Indonesia through Sea, Traveloka and JD to become the WeChat Pay of Southeast Asia

Indonesia’s ecommerce today is like what China was in 2008 — the pace of change is unimaginable. When I visited our office in Jakarta 12 months ago, hardly anyone was using Go-Jek’s mobile payment platform and wallet, Go-Pay.

Returning six months later, almost all of my colleagues used Go-Pay to transfer money peer-to-peer and pay for products and services.

In most of emerging Southeast Asia (excl. Singapore and Malaysia), credit card penetration rates are in low single digits and most people don’t even have a bank account.

 

Source: Global Findex, World Bank

 

Unfortunately, few fintech and payment startups in the region have created products to address the lack of credit cards and large unbanked population. Instead, the majority happily build payment gateways and e-wallets that rely on existing and legacy credit card infrastructure like in the US (Apple Pay anyone?).

It’s no wonder cash-on-delivery (COD) still makes up over 70% of all processed transactions according to data by ecommerceIQ.

Those that do focus on mobile wallets topped up with cash like Thailand’s True Money struggle to achieve sustainable “core product value” and reach mass.

“Community, Commerce, and Payments are inter-connected in the Digital World. Thus far, all successful mobile payment plays, globally, are centered on the commerce and community axis. PayPal started with eBay, Alipay with Alibaba/TMall/Taobao, WeChat Pay leveraged WeChat/QQ, and Amazon Pay has Amazon. Due to this very reason, standalone payments/wallet business will struggle.” — Gaurav Sharma, Founder at Atlantis Capital

Go-Pay addresses these fundamental issues by allowing users to send payments peer-to-peer (P2P) and top up by giving cash to Go-Jek drivers who act like mobile ATM machines.

Top up your Go Pay mobile wallet by handing cash to a Go-Jek driver

More importantly, with Go-Jek being part of the Tencent faction, we expect the company to push Go-Pay into other Southeast Asian countries through its community and commerce platforms such as Sea (Garena, Shopee, etc.), Traveloka and JD.

Following rumors in November, Go-Jek finally announced its acquisition of Kartuku, Mapan and Midtrans. The latter, being one of Indonesia’s top online payment gateways, will give Go-Pay additional distribution channels and use cases such as Matahari Mall, Tokopedia and Garuda Indonesia, pushing it beyond the realm of P2P into B2C payments.

A strong contender for the “WeChat of Southeast Asia” is Grab, whose 2.5 million daily rides makes it the largest ride-hailing platform in Southeast Asia. GrabPay, launched this year, is Grab’s effort to move Singapore towards a cashless society, with plans to expand across the region in 2018. Should Go-Jek be worried? Not really.

Singapore is not the ideal test-bed to launch a mobile wallet because the country already has an ubiquitous cashless payment platform called “credit cards”. And GrabPay’s recent partnership in Indonesia with Lippo Group’s Ovo hasn’t garnered much attention or presented wide use cases.

“While it might seem like common wisdom to first test (an idea) in Singapore, and then take it regionally and to the world, with all due respect to the government, I think it doesn’t make sense in today’s world.” — Min-Liang Tan, Co-Founder and CEO of Razer

Go-Pay, on the other hand, is adding value to users in a country where only 36% have bank accounts and 2% have credit cards. Emerging markets like Thailand, Vietnam and the Philippines have a similar (lack of) financial infrastructure as Indonesia.

Go-Jek, by being part of the Tencent faction, has access to a much more diversified distribution channel and offers a variety of common day-to-day use cases such as gaming (Garena), shopping (Sea, JD), travel (Traveloka) and pretty much everything else (Go-Jek itself).

New mobile-first fashion and beauty marketplaces will fill void left by Zalora

Zalora, Rocket Internet’s once star fashion ecommerce venture, has struggled in Southeast Asia since launching in 2012. Zalora Thailand and Vietnam were picked up by Thai retail conglomerate Central Group for pennies on the dollar while the Philippines entity was partially sold off to the Ayala real estate group. There were even rumors of Zalora Indonesia exiting to local retailer MAP, which were swiftly denied.

A few factors contributed to the company’s difficulties: 1. Price and product variety competition with merchants selling on Facebook, Instagram and LINE, 2. Control of brands by one or two retail conglomerates like Central in Thailand, MAP in Indonesia, and SSI Group in the Philippines. These two factors made it difficult for Zalora to pivot to an ASOS-style premium brand marketplace.

A shell of its former self, Zalora’s challenges left a void that is increasingly being filled by more nimble, mobile-first fashion marketplaces that see an opportunity in a space dominated by mass-market, general ecommerce platforms like Lazada and Shopee.

As evident from Amazon’s struggle to court premium fashion brands in the US, luxury brands don’t like to sell on mass platforms, where merchandise shows up beside detergent and washing machines.

“After purchasing Whole Foods, Amazon now has access to the wealthiest refrigerators in the country but they still can’t get into our closets because the aspirational beauty and fashion brands don’t want to distribute on their platform. Why? Because they don’t have their heads up their ass and realize that Amazon partners with brands the way a virus partners with its host.” — Scott Galloway, L2 Founder and NYU Stern Professor

Over in China, both Tmall and JD had to exert a Herculean effort to attract fashion brands. In October, JD launched TopLife, a standalone online luxury platform to provide a high-end experience that high-end brands promise. Alibaba also launched Luxury Pavilion, a section within Tmall tailored to luxury brands like Burberry and Hugo Boss.

Spearheading a new wave of mobile-centric Southeast Asian fashion marketplaces are Zilingo, fresh off an $18M Series B, and Goxip, a Hong Kong based startup that recently completed a $5M Series A with plans to enter Thailand. In Indonesia, there’s LYKE, ironically founded by the ex-Zalora CMO.

With the benefits of hindsight and understanding of the importance of social commerce on driving fashion, these emerging players will offer elements like chat, content and an influencer network to offset some of the customer acquisition cost challenges inherent in scaling ecommerce.

Marketplaces will grow up and clean up ‘grey market’ for blue-chip and luxury brands

Over the last six years, most of the region’s initial ecommerce growth was focused on driving GMV by tapping into any merchant and brand willing to sell online. In 2018, marketplaces like Lazada and Shopee will continue to attempt to onboard bigger global brands but their success will require them to control grey market sellers and counterfeit goods in order to cultivate an environment in which blue-chip brands will feel comfortable selling.

Alibaba went through the same process in China when discussions surrounding counterfeits and grey market goods on Tmall and Taobao peaked around the company’s IPO in 2014. Based on data provided by marketplace analytics platform BrandIQ, 80% of SKUs from consumer product giants like Unilever, Samsung, and L’Oreal on average are sold by unauthorized, grey market resellers. These grey market SKUs are sold at a price 30% lower than official flagship stores and authorized resellers.

Why all the fuss? Because grey market sales impact the image of brands selling in official stores. “Lately, the explosion of third-party sellers on the site has led to authentic goods from companies such as Nike, Chanel, The North Face, Patagonia and Urban Decay being sold on Amazon even though they don’t authorize the sales, undercutting their grip on pricing and distribution,” said the Wall Street Journal.

Nike, for example, refused to sell directly to Amazon for a long time, fearing it would undermine its brand. But by not selling on marketplace creates space that will be quickly filled by grey market, unauthorized third-party resellers looking for arbitrage opportunities as seen from the previous BrandIQ data.  

Customers buying from these grey market resellers perceive this as buying from the brand itself and, when having a poor customer experience, end up blaming the brand rather than the unauthorized reseller.

BrandIQ data shows that the average rating for grey market SKUs are 24% lower than reviews for similar products sold through the official shop-in-shop or flagship store. We’ll see a push from the marketplace and brands to address grey market sales in Southeast Asia in 2018. Marketplaces will employ a tighter grip on third-party resellers in order to attract better brands, while brands will set up an official presence on marketplaces as a way to pro-actively manage the customer experience and brand image.

 

Marketplaces and e-tailers will introduce its own private label products and alienate brands

As the ecommerce market in Southeast Asia matures and consolidates, marketplaces, e-tailers and ecommerce startups will be increasingly scrutinized for margin growth. Gone are the days of aggressive top line growth and market share grabs at all cost.

With Lazada post-Alibaba acquisition and Shopee post-IPO (as part of Sea), what other value-added services will these companies tap into for sustainable revenue growth? In this instance, companies in Southeast Asia have taken a cue from the China playbook. Lazada launched a Lazada Marketing Solutions unit to monetize its 23M active annual customers through advertising similar to how Tmall and Taobao charge for ads in China.

Today, Lazada offers display ads and programmatic promoted product ads to its customers but is expected to launch pay-per-click search ads in 2018 competing with Google, Facebook and similar networks out there. Across the region, Shopee has already launched per-per-click search ads.

Beyond advertising, we can expect more marketplaces and e-tailers to follow Amazon’s foray into private label brands to boost margins. With the data collected from selling third-party brands, these ecommerce platforms know exactly what kind of products sell best, to whom, at what time and where.

Flipkart, one of India’s top marketplaces competing with Amazon, recently announced its aim for 20-22% sales contribution from private labels in the next five years. “When we first decided to foray into private labels in mid-2016, a ‘Tiger Team,’ for private labels was created internally to research 50-odd retailers around the world, including Europe, the US, China and India, to envisage what the private label landscape would look like for Flipkart over the next few years. Research revealed that private labels can contribute 10-20 percent of the company’s business. For instance, US-based Costco Wholesale’s private label brand Kirkland contributes 20-25 percent of its business,” said Adarsh Menon, Flipkart’s Head of Private Labels in an interview with The Hindu.

Launching private label brands in Southeast Asia isn’t something new. Zalora launched its own fashion label called EZRA as early as 2013 followed by Lazada’s LZD Premium Collection in 2014. With the focus on top line growth in the period of 2013-2016, private label brands have taken a backseat as seen from the limited number of them listed today on Zalora and Lazada.

Althea, a Korean beauty e-retailer that recently raised a $7M Series B, specifically said to be using the new funds to launch more private label products. Althea private label product sold on their website

“Based on the vast amount of user data that we have gathered… we are now able to understand the specific needs of our customers in each market, garner feedback almost instantly through our online platforms, and quickly turn that into a product within a month or two,” said Althea Co-Founder and CEO Frank Kang. “We have deep insights into our customer base that traditional brands simply cannot match.”

In light of all this, it’s not surprising Zalora has expressed renewed interest in pushing its own private labels, “Something Borrowed” and “Zalora”, for the new year.

B2B ecommerce to disrupt offline distributors, blurring lines between online and offline distribution

 

Despite the rosy outlook for ecommerce in Southeast Asia, the reality is that B2C ecommerce today is still in the low single digit percentages. Given aggressive growth targets, brands, marketplaces and e-tailers will increasingly look toward non-B2C channels such as B2B and B2E (Business-to-Employee) channels for revenue.

Zilingo, the Sequoia-backed fashion marketplace, launched its Zilingo Asia Mall B2B marketplace to allow fashion buyers in the US and Europe buy Zilingo merchandise at wholesale prices, effectively creating an “Alibaba” for fashion. Shopee launched a wholesale feature earlier this year, allowing merchants to set lower unit prices for larger order quantities.

Shopee Malaysia offering wholesale feature

aCommerce, Southeast Asia’s ecommerce enabler and e-distributor, fresh off a $65M Series B from KKR-backed Emerald Media, coined a new term for all this — “B2A” or Business-to-All.

The company is behind the B2B and B2E initiatives for brands like Samsung and L’Oreal. According to the company, B2B ecommerce now contributes to 30% of total revenues at aCommerce, up from 10% a year earlier (disclaimer, I work here).

 

 

Dari Aborsi Mobnas ke Terobosan Tesla?

Oleh Christianto Wibisono

Founder Chairman Pusat Data Bisnis Indonesia (PDBI)

 

Menteri Perhubungan Singapura Khaw Boon Wan pada Senin, 9 Mei 2017, memberi insentif sebesar S$30.000 (US$22.000) untuk pembelian mobil Tesla model 3 yang diluncurkan Elon Musk pada 31 Maret 2017. Bandingkan dengan insentif Kanada sebesar C$8.000 (US$6.200). Singapura memberi insentif untuk memenuhi kriteria global city CEVS (Carbon Emmisions Vehicle Scheme). Tesla model 3 akan diterima indentor di luar Amerika Serikat (AS) awal 2018 dengan harga di AS hanya US$ 35.000 untuk penyerahan akhir 2017.

Indonesia jelas bukan Singapura yang harga mobilnya dibatasi oleh mahalnya Certificate of Entitlement, sekitar US$50.000 untuk setiap pembelian mobil baru. Indonesia adalah produsen mobil nomor 17 dari 20 negara dengan 4 besar di atas 6 juta, yaitu Tiongkok, AS, Jepang, dan Jerman. Di luar dugaan India juga sudah melejit di 5 besar. Bahkan, Tata Group membeli merk mobil mewah terkenal Jaguar Rover pada 2008, menyusul pembelian merk Volvo Swedia oleh Geely, perusahaan mobil swasta Tionghoa yang bukan BUMN milik Li Shufu dari bekas pabrik kulkas. Korea menjadi negara di luar AS, Eropa, dan Jepang yang mampu membangun industri mobil global meski pasar domestik kecil. Sedangkan Tiongkok dan India tentu mempunyai keunggulan komparatif karena pasar domestik raksasa.

 

Sebetulnya Indonesia punya “feng shui” yang luar biasa. Setelah membangun di Yokohama dan Osaka pada 1926, General Motors masuk pasar Hindia-Belanda pada 1927 dan membangun pabrik perakitan di Tanjung Priok yang mulai beroperasi 1938. Ini berarti raksasa mobil dunia pertama General Motors memilih Jakarta sebagai basis produksi 90 tahun yang lalu, di mana Indonesia dinilai lebih menarik daripada Singapura, dengan potensi penduduk dan wilayah Indonesia sebagai pertimbangan.

Pada 1953, Hasyim Ning menjadi raja mobil dan mendirikan perakitan kedua setelah General Motors Priok tersebut, yaitu PT Indonesian Service Company (ISC) yang akan merajai permobilan Indonesia sampai 1970-an dengan mengageni Fiat dan Ford.

Baca Juga: Tangkal Berita Negatif Perusahaan dengan 10 Kiat Ini!

 

Pada 1969, William Soeryadjaya dengan Astra International membeli eks pabrik General Motors yang telah dinasionalisasi menjadi PN Gaya Motor (BUMN sejak era Orde Lama Bung Karno yang sangat antimodal asing dan mengambil alih seluruh perusahaan Belanda pada 1957). Sejak itu, selama 23 tahun William dan Astra menjadi raja mobil Indonesia kedua setelah Hasyim Ning, serta merk Eropa dan AS tergusur sebagaimana tren permobilan global dengan dominasi merk Jepang mengalahkan merk AS dan Eropa.

Jatuhnya William bukan karena bisnis Astra, tetapi karena “bail-out” Bank Summa sehingga keluarga William harus menjual seluruh saham di Astra, yang terjadi enam tahun sebelum krisis moneter 1998. Tapi, sejarah tetap akan mencatat William Soeryajaya sebagai raja mobil Indonesia kedua setelah Hasyim Ning.

Pada 1996, Presiden Soeharto mengejar waktu berlakunya era perdagangan bebas (WTO) mendirikan proyek Mobil Nasional Timor yang dilaksanakan oleh putra mahkota Tommy Soeharto. Secara historis empiris memang semua negara, termasuk Jepang, AS, dan Eropa, harus selalu melampaui tahapan infant industry protection, kebijakan melindungi industri yang masih “balita” dari ancaman impor produk pesaing yang sudah lebih mapan. Itulah prinsip mobnas merk Timor yang memanfaatkan kerja sama dengan KIA yang mengubah merk Sephia menjadi Timor S515. Seandainya Astra masih di tangan William barangkali proyek Mobnas ini lebih viable dan terwujud seperti pola Hyundai dan tidak tersendat seperti Proton.

 

 

Tapi, sejarah mencatat bahwa terjadi konflik antara figur Presiden Soeharto dengan William Soeryadjaya karena dinilai pernah “arogan” menghibahkan saham kepada koperasi. Padahal, Presiden Soeharto tidak ingin istilah hibah atau belas kasihan, melainkan koperasi membeli saham konglomerat. Itu terjadi di Tapos pada 1990 dan krisis Bank Duta yang mengakibatkan Soeharto memerlukan dana bail-out, yang juga tidak “disumbang” oleh William. Itu berakibat tidak ada privilege untuk Astra. Krismon langsung menghentikan proyek mobnas Timor karena International Monetary Fund (IMF) mencoret proyek itu paling awal bersama monopoli cengkeh BPPC.

Selang 16 tahun kemudian, pada Januari 2012, Walikota Solo Ir Joko Widodo melakukan terobosan dengan mempromosikan mobil perakitan Esemka hingga memopulerkan sosoknya dan memenangkan pemilihan gubernur DKI pada 2012. Melejit jadi presiden pada 2014, Presiden Jokowi sempat menyaksikan MoU Proton Malaysia dengan perusahaan nasional Indonesia untuk mengembangkan kerja sama Proton yang segera memperoleh kritik dari mereka yang gerah dengan koalisi asing dan bukan murni nasional.

 

 

Pusat Data Bisnis Indonesia (PDBI) telah mengkaji sejarah industri mobil global yang menyisakan dua pelaku di AS (pelaku ketiga yaitu patungan Chrysler dengan Fiat Italia), 3 produsen Jerman (Audi VW, BMW dan Mercedes Benz); dan 2 Prancis (Peugeot, Citroen dan Renault yang bekerja sama dengan Nissan Jepang yang merupakan satu-satunya negara dengan hampir selusin merk mobil, yaitu Toyota, Nissan, Honda, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Isuzu, Suzuki, Hino, Subaru, Daihatsu yang juga mengalami konsolidasi dan kemitraan seperti Toyota Daihatsu.

Memang sudah sangat terlambat untuk memakai pola mobnas kecuali pemerintah melakukan terobosan leapfrog, membangun mobil elektrik seperti Tesla, atau berkolaborasi dengan Tesla menjadikan Tesla sebagai “mobnas” dengan syarat membangun pabrik di Indonesia dan saham substansial yang dialokasikan untuk Indonesia (di atas 35%). Hyundai memiliki 2/3 saham di KIA sehingga memungkinkan entitas Korea itu melejit menjadi produsen mobil nomor empat terbesar sedunia setelah Toyota, General Motors, dan Volkswagen.

Sudah 90 tahun, hampir seabad sejak General Motors memilih Jakarta sebagai perakitan mobil kedua di Asia setelah Jepang. Ironis bahwa sekarang kita tidak mampu mengembangkan merk nasional hanya karena gelombang politik kroni melawan arus pasar yang efisien melanda industri otomotif kita. Adakah terobosan” Tesla Indonesia”? Ikuti pembahasan “Seabad Otomotif Indonesia” oleh PDBI di Annex Building, Wisma Nusantara, Selasa, 29 Agustus 2017.

Foto-Foto: PDBI, Toyota, General Motors

Persoalan Mindset

Oleh Hadi Kuncoro
CEO aCommerce Indonesia

Ketika saya didaulat menjadi salah satu pembicara mewakili First Logistics dan Saqina, tempat saya bekerja sebelumnya, dalam ajang Last Mile Fulfilment Asia di Singapura dua tahun lalu, saya masih ingat betul betapa hanya sedikit wakil dari Indonesia. Kalau pun ada, sebagian tidak benar-benar berdarah Jawa, Sumatera, atau Papua, melainkan bule-bule dari perusahaan global semacam Rocket Internet.

Tak disangka, kini lansekap e-commerce regional, bahkan global, berubah. Dalam event-event di tempat yang sama, wakil-wakil dari Indonesia telah mendominasi. Kisah-kisah sukses e-commerce yang dilahirkan pemuda-pemudi Indonesia mengalir deras begitu rupa. Mungkin dunia e-commerce sudah mulai berbalik. Tapi, apa betul begitu?

Belum lama ini, saat peluncuran Association of Technology Startup Indonesia di Jakarta, saya ditanya oleh Sunil Tolani, ketua bidang agro tech asosiasi tersebut. Pertanyaannya begini: “Bagaimana kesiapan start up Indonesia dalam menghadapi persaingan di ranah regional ASEAN dan global?” Satu pertanyaan yang sangat menarik.

Menurut saya, kita sudah berhasil membalikkan posisi dari sekadar peserta menjadi pembicara di seminar-seminar e-commerce dunia. Pasar yang demikian besar ditambah keberhasilan dalam berinovasi telah mengantarkan kita ke panggung-panggung global. Tidak sedikit start up yang didirikan pemuda-pemudi Indonesia memenangkan kompetisi berskala internasional.

Akan tetapi, harus disadari bahwa persaingan tidak sebatas mendirikan perusahaan. Di sini masalahnya. Banyak di antara kita yang berhasil mendirikan start up, tapi sering kali berhenti di tengah jalan karena tidak sanggup menumbuhkannya menjadi smart up dan scale up. Ini persoalan mindset!

Itu berarti, membuat start up terasa mudah, menumbuhkannya yang jauh lebih sulit, apalagi di era digital ini. Untuk itu, seorang founder dan leader harus visioner. Tidak hanya itu, juga mesti memahami konsep VUCA secara kuat dan matang. Apa itu VUCA? VUCA merupakan singkatan dari Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, dan Ambiguity.

Volatility; perubahan yang sangat cepat. Teknologi berkembang dengan sangat cepat. Perubahan platform serta munculnya aplikasi dan fitur-fitur baru memaksa kita untuk bisa secepat mungkin beradaptasi dengan kecepatan yang terjadi. Sebab, perilaku konsumen berubah, bisnis model baru pun bermunculan. Jika kita tidak tangkas, maka kita yang semula start up disrupter berubah menjadi disrupted oleh start up lainnya.

Uncertainty; sulitnya memprediksi situasi dan keadaan ke depan. Saat ini, ekonomi saling terhubung, baik regional maupun global. Teknologi telah berperan memendekkan semua rantai bisnis sejak dari produksi hingga distribusi; dari pabrik, tangan penjual, sampai pembeli.

Kita tidak tahu apa yang terjadi di dunia e-commerce besok ketika Amazon masuk ke negeri ini dan Alibaba memperkuat tajinya di Lazada. Sementara, pemerintah mengeluarkan regulasi bahwa nilai impor ritel kita yang non customs declaration naik dari semula US$50 menjadi US$100. Sehingga, mau tidak mau produk lokal kita harus sesegera mungkin memasang kuda-kuda. Kita harus berpikir the best diffence is by doing offensive.

Complexity; dunia milenial ini semakin terintegrasi dan terhibrida dalam lingkup digital, semakin kompleks dalam percaturan pengembangan bisnis. Contoh, apakah kita pernah berpikir sebelumnya jika perusahaan taksi yang amat perkasa di bisnis transportasi akan “terbunuh” oleh perusahaan teknologi? Kini, kita hampir setiap hari mendengar aksi protes pengemudi taksi dan angkutan umum lainnya terkait keberadaan Go-Jek, Uber, dan Grab.

Contoh lain, barangkali sekarang ini perusahaan perbankan sedang deg-degan karena, selain bertempur dengan sesama bank, mereka juga mesti berhadapan dengan perusahaan teknologi finansial (financial technology). Jika di transportasi ada Go-Jek, di industri finansial ada GoPay (yang juga keluaran Go-Jek) dan lain sebagainya.

Ambiguity; tidak jelas. Saat ini, kita sering menghadapi sebuah situasi yang sulit dicari perbedaannya antara yang nyata dan abu-abu. Pasalnya, banyak sekali informasi malang melintang yang terkadang membuat bisnis menjadi ambigu dalam menentukan strategi. Kalau sudah begitu, efeknya jelas: salah strategi berarti mati.

Kembali ke awal, sekali lagi, menurut saya, semua itu bertumpu pada bagaimana mindset kita dalam memulai bermimpi membangun start up; berpikir tanpa batas; dan mempelajari banyak aspek dalam penguatan keahlian sesuai tahapan-tahapan dari start up, smart up, dan scale up. Jangan mentang-mentang orang teknologi hanya teknologi saja jagonya. Kalau jadi founder saat membuat start up, setelah itu mulailah belajar bagaimana cara membaca laporan keuangannya. Soalnya, biar gampang mendapatkan dana dari investor.

Ah, saya yakin para founder dari start up-start up di Indonesia sudah pintar-pintar. Sekarang, kuartal satu 2017 segera berakhir, bagaimana dengan jualan Anda? Oke, kan?**

Nokia yang Kepedean

 

Oleh Jeffrey Bahar, Group Deputy CEO Spire Research and Consulting

Akhir-akhir menjelang pemilihan presiden Amerika Serikat pada 8 November 2016, hampir semua polling memenangkan kandidat dari Partai Demokrat, Hillary Clinton. Donald Trump, sang lawan dari Partai Republik, tidak pernah mendapatkan elektabilitas yang lebih besar. Hillary pun semakin percaya diri (pede) karena perbandingan keterpilihannya kian meninggalkan Trump.

Dalam McClatchy-Marist Poll pada Agustus, misalnya, Hillary memperoleh 48% suara dibandingkan 33% yang memilih Trump. Persentase itu meningkat dari 42% berbanding 39% satu bulan sebelumnya. Elektabilitas yang terus naik itu menjadi bekal bagi Hillary, istri Mantan Presiden Bill Clinton, untuk semakin yakin dirinya bakal memenangi pemilihan presiden yang ke-58 tersebut.

Suara Hillary bertambah dan suara Trump menurun dalam survei lantaran beberapa hal, salah satunya terkait suku, agama, ras, dan antargolongan (SARA). Trump dianggap berbahaya karena mengusung SARA dengan hendak membatasi pergerakan kaum muslim jika terpilih menjadi presiden. Rencana konglomerat properti itu memancing reaksi publik dan menganggapnya tak pantas.

Tidak hanya itu, Trump juga akan membuat kebijakan baru bagi imigran, terutama yang datang dari negara-negara Islam dengan melarang masuk ke negaranya. Kebijakan itu ditentang banyak pihak, tidak terkecuali perusahaan-perusahaan teknologi yang berbasis di Silicon Valley, California. Pasalnya, perusahaan-perusahaan teknologi membutuhkan orang-orang berbakat, dan mereka tak sedikit yang datang dari negara-negara yang mendapat ancaman akan dilarang.

Hingga malam menjelang pemilihan pun, Clinton yang dianggap lebih banyak menyebarkan pesan damai cukup pede akan memenangi pertarungan. Meski dua minggu sebelum pemilihan ia “diganggu” dengan rekomendasi Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) atas dugaan skandal e-mail saat menjabat menteri luar negeri, lembaga-lembaga survei dan pengamat-pengamat politik juga tetap mengunggulkan dirinya.

Sepanjang pagi hingga siang pada 8 November 2016 pemilihan presiden Amerika Serikat berlangsung. Semua warga dari 50 negara bagian, Distrik Columbia, dan wilayah administratif lainnya—yang diwakili oleh elektor-elektor presiden menaruh harap kandidat pilihannya memenangi pemilihan. Tidak hanya media lokal, media-media global terus memancarkan laporannya tanpa jeda.

Namun, apa yang terjadi? Pasca-penghitungan suara cepat (quick count) sore harinya, sebagian warga, pengamat politik, dan lembaga-lembaga survei terdiam. Mereka heran, bagaimana mungkin polling yang selalu mengunggulkan Hillary justru secara nyata dimenangi Trump, sang pemicu kontroversi itu? Bagaimana mungkin orang yang banyak menawarkan program tak populer malah disukai warga Amerika?

Sepertinya selama kampanye berlangsung, Hillary memang terlalu percaya diri alias kepedean. Ia menganggap hasil survei sepenuhnya menggambarkan kenyataan, program-program yang mengikuti arus diyakini disukai elektor. Nyatanya tidak. Trump, yang omongannya sering kali menuai kecaman, justru lebih disukai elektor dari electoral-electoral college.

 

Berdasarkan hasil akhir, Trump memperoleh 270 electoral vote, lebih banyak jika dibandingkan dengan 228 yang didapatkan Hillary. Jumlah electoral vote itu sudah lebih dari cukup karena kandidat presiden Amerika Serikat membutuhkan 270 dukungan elektor untuk berkantor di Gedung Putih.

 

Berdasarkan hasil akhir, Trump memperoleh 270 electoral vote, lebih banyak jika dibandingkan dengan 228 yang didapatkan Hillary. Jumlah electoral vote itu sudah lebih dari cukup karena kandidat presiden Amerika Serikat membutuhkan 270 dukungan elektor untuk berkantor di Gedung Putih. Setelah itu, para pengamat politik pun berujar bahwa Trump berpegang teguh pada insting dan apa yang ia lakukan itulah yang memang sedang disukai publik Negeri Paman Sam.

Artinya, keunggulan demi keunggulan tidak menjamin seseorang bisa benar-benar memenangkan persaingan, salah satunya dalam pemilihan presiden Amerika Serikat akhir 2016. Buktinya, Hillary yang sudah terlanjur kepedean akibat prediksi-prediksi tersebut malah takluk dari Trump yang tak pernah unggul dalam jajak pendapat sebelumnya.

Tidak di Amerika, tidak di Indonesia. Kita masih ingat betapa Basuki Tjahaja Purnama amat pede akan memenangi pemilihan gubernur DKI Jakarta pada 15 Februari 2017. Basuki, atau yang akrab dipanggil Ahok, sudah jauh-jauh hari yakin akan mengalahkan lawan-lawannya hanya dalam satu putaran pemilihan. Hal itu wajar karena sebagai gubernur, ia menganggap telah bekerja benar, ada hasilnya, dan memberikan banyak sekali perubahan.

Keberanian Ahok dalam menerapkan kebijakan dan melawan siapa saja yang tidak patuh pada aturan menarik simpati warga. Ia bahkan ingin maju kembali dalam pemilihan gubernur lewat jalur independen karena tak percaya partai politik. Langkah itu pun semakin mengundang dukungan yang terbukti warga bersedia mengumpulkan hingga 1 juta fotokopi kartu tanda penduduk secara sukarela untuk Ahok.

Sayangnya, dukungan yang diyakini besar membuat Ahok kepedean. Saking pede-nya, ia terlalu berani berbicara apa saja, yang kadang-kadang dengan nada kelewat keras. Satu kali, ia pun dituduh menistakan agama. Padahal, publik tidak siap dengan karakter Ahok yang demikian. Elektabilitas Ahok yang di atas 50% lantas turun dan tidak beda jauh dengan Anies Baswedan-Sandiaga Uno dalam pemilihan. Ahok pun tak bisa menang satu putaran.

Ranah Teknologi

Tidak di dunia politik, tidak di industri teknologi. Yang namanya kepedean, hasilnya pasti tidak bagus. Sebab, terlalu pede bersifat tidak realistis, cenderung berlebihan dengan apa yang seharusnya, tidak sesuai dengan kemauan pasar. Nokia contohnya. Pada awal 2000-an, siapa yang tidak kenal dengan Nokia? Merek asal Finlandia itu menguasai hampir seluruh pasar ponsel global sejak akhir 1990-an hingga 2012.

Nokia, yang awalnya berupa telepon mobil berukuran besar produksi bersama antara Mobira dan produsen televisi Salora, dengan nama Nokia Mobira Talkman pada 1985, telah berubah menjadi raja ponsel dengan penjualan ratusan juta unit. Nokia 1100, ponsel berfitur layar warna, kamera, dan pesan MMS yang diluncurkan pada 2003, misalnya, terjual hingga 250 juta unit. Seri ini bahkan kembali laris pada 2005.

Namun, kerajaan Nokia mulai goyah setelah raksasa internet Google yang berbasis di Silicon Valley, California, Amerika Serikat, memperkenalkan sistem operasi Android untuk perangkat bergerak. Sistem operasi yang bersifat terbuka (open source) itu lantas dipakai banyak merek, salah satunya Samsung asal Korea Selatan. Penggunaan Android semakin dibutuhkan seiring dengan kebutuhan pengguna untuk mengakses internet melalui ponsel pintar (smartphone).

Nokia yang keukeuh tak mau mengadopsi Android akhirnya mulai tergerus, dan Samsung benar-benar mengalahkan penjualan pendahulunya itu pada awal 2012. Mengacu pada Strategy Analytics, Inc., firma riset dan konsultasi pasar teknologi yang memiliki kantor di Amerika Utara, Eropa, dan Asia, kepedean Nokia untuk tetap menggunakan sistem operasi Symbian berbuah pahit.

Dalam laporan tersebut, pada kuartal pertama 2012 Samsung berhasil menjual 93,5 juta unit ponsel secara global, sedangkan Nokia hanya 82,7 juta unit. Jika dibandingkan dengan penjualan satu model Nokia 1100 pada 2003, tentu tidak sampai separuhnya. Apple, produsen iPhone yang juga mempunyai sistem operasi sendiri, nasibnya sama dengan Nokia, yakni tersalip oleh Samsung karena hanya menjual 35,1 juta unit.

Rupanya kekalahan itu merupakan awal dari kekalahan-kekalahan berikutnya. Nokia yang tetap merasa pede dengan teknologinya ternyata tak mampu meyakinkan pasar ponsel global. Sejak saat itu penjualan Nokia semakin anjlok, sementara di waktu yang sama Samsung kian mendominasi. Tidak berhenti sampai di situ, sampai-sampai merek ponsel pintar Nokia mesti dilepas ke Microsoft senilai US$7,2 miliar pada 25 April 2014.

Sampai saat ini, merujuk pada data yang diliris IDC, Nokia belum kembali ke daftar lima besar merek ponsel global. Begitulah, merek yang kepedean, tidak cepat mengadopsi perubahan di zaman yang serba-cepat berubah akibat perkembangan teknologi, akhirnya tersingkir dalam persaingan. Di ranah internet, barangkali Yahoo! bisa menjadi contoh lain, yang kalah dari Google, follower-nya. Di dunia politik pun sama. Buktinya seperti cerita Hillary dan Ahok tadi. Karena itu, di mana pun kita, apa pun bisnis kita, sebaiknya jangan lengah, dan jangan kepedean!**

 

Data TechnoBusiness

Spire Research and Consulting merupakan perusahaan periset pasar dan konsultasi bisnis untuk pasar global, terutama di negara-negara berkembang. Perusahaan yang didirikan pada 2000 ini memiliki kantor perwakilan di semua negara Asia Tenggara, ditambah China, Amerika Serikat, Korea Selatan, dan Jepang, dengan kantor pusat di Singapura.

Pelajaran dari Yahoo!

Oleh Jeffrey Bahar, Deputy CEO Spire Research and Consulting

Ketika armada-armada American Airlines pada awal 1990-an terbang semakin tinggi dan merajai hampir seluruh destinasi penerbangan di dunia, Jerry Yang dan David Filo tengah asyik memecahkan satu keinginan mereka: membentuk perusahaan dunia maya. Awal 1994, apa yang mereka cita-citakan benar-benar terwujud. Lahirlah perusahan internet bernama Yahoo!

Nama Yahoo merupakan kepanjangan dari “Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle”, yang berarti tempat bertanya yang paling tahu yang telah disusun secara bertingkat dan sistematis. Ada pula yang mereka-reka bahwa Yahoo diambil dari bahasa Ibrani, yakni YHMH (Yahweh), yang bermakna Tuhan. Mungkin dikaitkan dengan sifat hanya Tuhanlah yang paling tahu segalanya.

Terlepas dari itu, Yang, Filo, dan Yahoo! memang satu-kesatuan dari perkembangan internet global yang fenomenal. Pada akhir 1990-an hingga awal 2000-an, siapa yang tidak menggunakan Yahoo!? Siapa yang tidak melakukan pencarian di Yahoo! Search? Siapa yang tidak berkirim surat via Yahoo! Mail? Siapa yang tidak chatting dengan Yahoo! Messenger?

Yahoo! Groups-nya pun tak bisa lepas dari tempat berkumpul dan bertukar pikiran antar-anggota komunitas secara nyata di dunia maya. Selain itu, masih banyak lagi layanannya. Sama seperti maskapai American Airlines, yang saat itu hanya kalah destinasi dari United Airlines tapi menang dari sisi jumlah armada dan pendapatannya, Yahoo! terus melanglang buana hingga semua orang tergantung kepadanya.

Walhasil, popularitas Yahoo! terus menanjak, pendapatannya semakin meningkat, valuasinya pun kian menggelembung. Kebetulan Yahoo! memang lahir pada masa terjadinya gelembung dotcom (dotcom bubble), gelembung yang dipicu penemuan teknologi world wide web, yang menyebabkan nilai saham situs berawalan e- dan berakhiran .com melonjak tajam.

Hingga akhirnya Yahoo! dikenal sebagai raja internet bernilai US$125 miliar. Tentu saja, kekayaan Yang dan Filo juga terkerek naik. Mereka pun berani mengakuisisi perusahaan-perusahaan yang sekiranya menarik, seperti Broadcast.com, radio internet yang didirikan Christoper Jaeb, Todd Wagner, dan Mark Cuban pada September 1995, seharga US$5,7 juta pada April 1999. Itu menjadi akuisisi termahal Yahoo!

Mereka juga mengambil alih Geocities, perusahaan layanan web hosting yang berdiri pada November 1994, pada 1999 senilai US$4,5 juta. Masih banyak lagi yang mereka akuisisi selain kedua perusahaan itu. Di Indonesia, sempat mengambil Koprol, lalu mematikannya. Dengan kekayaan dan kekuatannya, Yang dan Filo asyik memandang ke depan tapi rupanya lupa melihat ke belakang.

Sebagai raja, Yahoo! memiliki pengguna yang sangat banyak di seluruh dunia. Namun, pada saat yang sama, penggunanya mulai merasa resah karena layanan-layanan Yahoo! dianggap kurang aman. Pada saat yang sama pula, Google muncul. Andaikan Yahoo! pintar, jangan biarkan Google besar dan menjadi kompetitor yang kuat dengan: memperbaiki sistem keamanan internal sekaligus, misalnya, mengakuisisi sang rival itu.

Sepertinya kala itu Yang dan Filo kurang waspada, atau malah sengaja meremehkan sang follower. Kalau benar menganggap remeh, itu artinya mereka lupa pada diri sendiri. Mereka lupa bahwa Yahoo! yang baru lahir tiba-tiba bisa  menjadi raja teknologi dunia. Terbukti, kini Yahoo! bukan apa-apanya dibanding Google. Apa yang menjadi andalan Yahoo! telah dimiliki semua oleh Google.

Google telah menjelma menjadi raja internet global, sementara Yahoo! semakin hari semakin terperangkap ke ranah kematian. Berkali-kali selama bertahun-tahun Yahoo! ditawarkan ke investor, tapi gagal. Baru pada 25 Juli 2016 Verizon Communications Inc., perusahaan telekomunikasi asal Amerika Serikat, bersedia mengakuisisinya senilai US$4,83 miliar.

Hah, US$4,83 miliar? Semua pasti menggeleng-gelengkan kepala. Sebuah perusahaan yang pada masa kejayaannya bernilai US$125 miliar, kini hanya dihargai dengan akuisisi yang sangat amat kecil. Menyedihkan bukan? Tapi, Yahoo! tidak sendiri. Research in Motion, produsen ponsel pintar BlackBerry asal Kanada, akhirnya juga terseok-seok setelah berkibar sebentar. Nokia, rajanya ponsel fitur global asal Finlandia, sekonyong-konyong tak berdaya walau tak goyah beberapa dekade pada masanya.

Semua itu, jika dirumuskan, ada satu pelajaran yang sangat penting dan menarik, yakni mereka kurang antisipatif. Mereka memang sudah berada di zaman teknologi, bahkan mereka sendiri perusahaan teknologi, tapi mereka lupa bahwa teknologi itulah yang mampu mengubah semuanya menjadi amat cepat. Kompetitor yang baru lahir bisa tiba-tiba menggeser raksasa karena kebaruan teknologinya.

Yang pasti, meski di tangan pemilik baru, Yahoo! semakin sulit melawan Google yang sudah terlanjur menggurita ke mana-mana. Sepertinya Yang dan Filo justru konsisten mengikuti American Airlines yang pada pertengahan 2010 juga mulai sibuk mencari pembeli, bangkrut pada November 2011, dan harus merger dengan US Airways Group 1,5 tahun kemudian.**

 

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Data TechnoBusiness ID

Spire Research and Consulting merupakan perusahaan periset pasar dan konsultasi bisnis untuk pasar global, terutama di negara-negara berkembang. Perusahaan yang didirikan pada 2000 ini memiliki kantor perwakilan di semua negara Asia Tenggara, ditambah China, Amerika Serikat, Korea Selatan, dan Jepang, dengan kantor pusat di Singapura.

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